Scientific Program

Conference Series Ltd invites all the participants across the globe to attend 8th International Conference on Biofuels, Bioenergy & Bioeconomy Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Day 1 :

OMICS International Biofuels & Bioeconomy 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Lew P Christopher photo
Biography:

Lew P Christopher holds a Master’s degree in Chemical Engineering, PhD degree in Biotechnology and has more than 20 years of industrial and academic experience. Currently he serves as the Director of the Biorefining Research Institute at Lakehead University, Canada. His research mission is to add value to the emerging bioeconomy by applying an integrated biorefinery approach to the development of renewable energy technologies. He is Member of the Editorial Board of several international biotechnology journals, advisory boards, and professional societies. He has made over 400 scientific contributions to the field of bioprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass.

Abstract:

Biorefineries are our future oil refineries where oil is inevitably replaced by lignocellulosic biomass; the most abundant and renewable resource on earth that is reproduced at 60 billion tons a year. Biorefineries are viewed as one of the major economic pillars of the emerging global bioeconomy that can advance and accelerate our transition to a bio-based society. Major drivers of the transitioning process include increasing demand for food and energy, diminished oil reserves and unstable oil prices, and increasing concerns over global climate change and greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, however, less than 10% of the total global fuels and chemicals production is derived from biomass. This is mainly due to the fact that biofuels and biochemicals are not yet cost-competitive to their petroleum-based counterparts. The current cost of lignocellulose conversion to bioenergy (US $15-$25/GJ) exceeds the cost of fossil fuels (US $3.31-$17.37/GJ). Therefore, development of an economically-viable production system would require the use of low-value biomass and waste streams that are currently generated. As the feedstock costs comprise about 50% on average of the total production costs, it has now been recognized that biomass waste can provide a cost-effective alternative to improve the economic viability of the biorefineries. Utilization of low-cost or negative-cost biomass waste has at least two major advantages over any other lignocellulosic feedstock: Opportunity to significantly lower the overall production costs of targeted bioproducts (biofuels, biochemicals or biomaterials) and opportunity to significantly reduce waste treatment costs and carbon footprint. This presentation will discuss opportunities for valorization of waste streams and underutilized byproducts generated during processing of lignocellulosic biomass. Waste streams under consideration conclude municipal solid waste, agricultural residues, bark, sawdust, primary and secondary sludge, industrial hydrolysates, etc. Potential value-added bioproducts and related technological challenges will be critically reviewed.

Break:
Networking & Refreshment Break 10:35 - 10:55 @ Foyer

Keynote Forum

Chung-Huang Huang

Taiwan Research Institute, Taiwan

Keynote: Optimal policy integration for biofuels development and carbon reduction

Time : 10:55-11:30

OMICS International Biofuels & Bioeconomy 2017 International Conference Keynote Speaker Chung-Huang Huang photo
Biography:

Chung-Huang Huang has received his PhD from the Department of Applied Economics at University of Minnesota in 1986 and since then started his career at National Tsing Hua University (NTHU) in Taiwan. Immediately after his early retirement from NTHU in 2011, he joined Taiwan Research Institute as the Vice President and now he is also the President of Taiwan Association of Environmental and Resource Economics. He has been a consultant to several think-tanks
in Taiwan, Chair Professor at universities in mainland China and member to several governmental advisory committees. His research is mainly on environmental and resource economics and CGE modeling. He has numerous articles published in American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Environmental and Resource Economics, Applied Economics, etc.

Abstract:

In response to the pressure of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, the authorities in Taiwan have been initiating a number of plausible policy instruments such as set-aside program by the Council of Agriculture (COA), Renewable Energy Development Act by the Bureau of Energy (BoE), carbon fee by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) and energy tax by the Ministry of Finance (MoF). National development targets of such renewables as wind power, biomass, solar energy, etc., are also promulgated by BoE under the Ministry of Economic Affairs. Quite often the policy instruments could hardly harmonize with each other due to weak coordination among authorities and incomplete enforcement. Socially desirable policy integration is, therefore, urgently needed so as to achieve the development targets cost-effectively and to mitigate the impacts on the economy. Despite the supply side of biofuels, including production techniques and policy instruments, had been pervasively presented, the demand-side management is much less addressed. Transportation sector, as an example, attracts much attention because not only its GHG emission continues to grow, but also it is the major sector consuming biofuels. It appears, however, that the policy instruments applicable to the Ministry of Transportation in Taiwan is limited and weakly linked to the prevailing policy framework. This leads to a policy failure in promoting the use of biodiesel in transportation sector such that truck drivers refuse to use biodiesel and retail sellers refuse to buy in biodiesel from producers. This paper examines the farmer’s willingness to accept for the production switched from traditional crops (e.g., rice) to energy crops. The properties of equilibria in crop markets are also discussed on the basis of a general equilibrium model that involves intertemporal decisions of multiple principals and agents. Furthermore, the optimal integration of alternative policy instruments is proposed, in the hope that the overall efficiency of policy mix could be enhanced. Specific emphasis will be placed on the derivation of the consumer’s willingness to pay for biofuels in the transportation sector. Accordingly, the demand for transportation services will be integrated into a general equilibrium framework, represented, to address the optimal policy mix with multiple principals and agents. It is expected that the findings could deliver constructive policy recommendations to the authorities and make profound contribution to the literature.

  • Biofuels Production
Location: Raposo Tavares
Speaker

Chair

Aharon Gedanken

Bar-Ilan University

Session Introduction

Aharon Gedanken

Bar-Ilan University, Isarel

Title: Using novel methods (Microwave Radiation and Sonochemistry) for the conversion of biomass to biofuels

Time : 11:30-11:55

Speaker
Biography:

Prof. Em. Aharon Gedanken obtained his M. Sc. from Bar-Ilan University, and his Ph. D. degree from Tel Aviv University, Israel. After his postdoctoral research at USC in Los Angeles. He got a lecturer position at BIU on Oct. 1975. He spent two sabbatical years at AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1980-8l, and 1987-88 as well as a summer in 1984. He also has done research at NIDDK, NIH in the summers of 1989, 1990 and 1991. In 1994 he switched his research interest from Spectroscopy to Nanotechnology. His special synthetic methods of nanomaterials include: Sonochemistry, Microwave Superheating, Sonoelectrochemistry, and Reactions under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperatures (RAPET). Since 2004 he is mostly focused on the applications of nanomaterials. Gedanken has published 782 per-reviewed manuscripts in international journals, and has applied for 38 Patents. His H-Index is 85 according to the WEB of SCIENCE. Gedanken has served as the Department Chairman as well as the Dean of the Faculty of Exact Sciences at Bar-Ilan University. He is on the editorial boards of 4 international journals. He still leads a group of 13 research people. He was a partner in five EC (European Community) FP7 projects one of them, SONO, was coordinated by him. This project was announced by the EC as a “Success Story”. He is a partner in PROTECT a textile project in Horizon 2020. He was the Israeli representative to the NMP (Nano, Materials, and Processes) committee of EC in FP7. He was awarded the prize of the Israel Vacuum Society in 2009 and the Israel Chemical Society for excellence in Research in Feb. 2013.

Abstract:

The lecture will present the use of novel methods such as Microwave radiation and Sonochemistry in converting micro and macro algae into biofuels. The lecture will demonstrate the direct conversion of as-harvested Nannochloropsis algae into bio-diesel without separating the lipidic phase. The results are based on the use of two novel techniques. The first being biotechnology-based environmental system utilizing flue gas from coal burning power stations for microalgae cultivation. This method reduces considerably the cost of algae production. The second technique is the direct transesterification (a one-stage method) of the Nannochloropsis biomass to biodiesel production using microwave and ultrasound radiation with the aid of a SrO catalyst. In the early stages of this research the lipidic phase was first extracted from the microalgae and transestrification followed it. Later we became courageous and carried out the transesterification directly on the as-harvested microalgae. Full conversion to biodiesel was achieved in 5 minutes. The combination of SrO solid catalyst and microwave radiation leads to full conversion (~100%) of the microalgae to biodiesel. The results are based on 1H NMR spectroscopy and HPLC results. I will show how agricultural wastes such as Pine Cones, Cicer Arietinum, Cotton, and Sugar Cane bagasse are converted to a fine chemical such as Levulinic acid in addition to conversion to ethanol. In addition, we have successfully converted a macroalgae, Ulva Rigida, into bioethanol getting 16% ethanol from 1 gram of the algae. These results were obtained by optimizing the production of Ulva rigida co-cultured with fed-fish in an offshore mariculture (fish cages) system is reported. Enhanced production of biomass with elevated content of desired carbohydrates is achieved. This SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation) process was accomplished with the help of soft sonication. Finally, I will demonstrate a solar system in which a macroalgae solution is flowing on a catalyst and is being fermented by to ethanol aided by the Solar irradiation. This reaction was conducted in a solar reactor that was designed to perform the conversion of starch, glucose, and ulva rigida to ethanol in a single step. The role of the solar energy is 1) activating the catalysts 2) evaporating the ethanol produced in the process. A continuous flow through the apparatus was continued for more than 30 days. The instrument is presented in Figure 1 below.

Speaker
Biography:

Rodrigo Morales-Vera is a Postdoctoral Research Associate in the School of Environmental and Forest Sciences at the University of Washington, USA. He has
been working in the Biofuels and Bioproducts Laboratory for 6 years. His primary research focus is the bioconversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals. His work for the Advanced Hardwood Biofuels Northwest (AHB) project includes design and modeling the process to make poplar to glacial acetic acid economically feasible and sustainable. He is interested in subjects such as design for the environment, life cycle assessment, industrial ecology and sustainable engineering.

Abstract:

Current commercial production of glacial acetic acid is exclusively by petrochemical routes with a current market price of $550-850/ton. Acetic acid is an intermediate for the production of plastics, textiles, dyes and paints. Production of acetic acid from biomass might be a sustainable and economically feasible alternative to petroleum derived routes. However, when producing pure acid from biomass, conventional liquid liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate for acetic acid purification is a major expense and requires considerable energy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare technical and economic feasibility of glacial acetic acid production using ethyl acetate and a tertiary amine (Alamine) in kerosene as organic solvents for LLE purification. Acetic acid production follows the path of pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, acetogen fermentation and acid purification. To meet large energy requirement for the processes, different energy sources including combustion of natural gas and lignin supplemented with natural gas were investigated. Aspen Plus software was used to simulate a biorefinery processing 250,000 tons/year poplar, producing in average 136,300 tons/year of glacial acetic acid. Capital and operating expenses for each configuration and profitability using discounted cash flow analysis to establish minimum selling prices (MSP) were used to assess economic viability. Additionally, Life Cycle Assessment is used to investigate environmental impact. Alamine in kerosene consumed 56% less energy than ethyl acetate during the recovery of acetic acid. Total capital expenses, in average, were 19% lower when natural gas was used as source of energy. The MSP/ton of acetic acid ranged from US$677 to US$819, for the different scenarios. Largest source of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is the combustion of biomass and natural gas at the biorefinery. Compared to petroleum based acetic acid, the global warming potentials (GWP) could be reduced by 41% using lignin and natural gas for bio acetic acid production.

Leonardo Curatti

National University at Mar del Plata, Argentina

Title: Algae-based multitrophic biomass biorefinery for the production of biofuels

Time : 12:20-12:45

Speaker
Biography:

Leonardo Curatti has received his graduate and PhD degree in Biology in the National University at Mar del Plata, Argentina. He has then joined Dr. Ludden’s laboratory in the University of California at Berkeley as an Associate Postdoctoral Researcher to study biochemical and genetic aspects of N2-fixation. In 2008, he started an independent line of research as an Investigator at the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research (CONICET) and as a Professor at the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Presently his laboratory at the Institute of Biotechnology and Biodiversity Research (INBIOTEC-CONICET) is mainly engaged in R&D regarding the use of biological N2-fixation as an alternative source of N-fertilizers for agriculture (including microalgae) and microalgae biorefineries for the production of biofuels and animal feed.

 

Abstract:

Statement of the Problem: Due to increased productivities and cultivation in marginal lands, microalgae have great potential as feedstock for biofuels alternative to plant crops. However, the current cost of producing biofuels from microalgae biomass is still high to envision massive and profitable commercialization in the near future. It is presumed that obtaining other higher-value byproducts in biorefineries would increase the profitability. Among other aspects, access to renewables as well as recycling of nutrients as substitutes for conventional fertilizers would be mandatory.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: We have been proposing alternative multispecies microbial cells-factories for the production of biofuels. Basically, the concept proposes the integration of operations that are exceptionally well performed by single microorganisms (whether naturally occurring or after genetic optimization) into multispecies systems than can execute more complex tasks and/or outperform any single species. We attempt to increase the use of N2 from the air as a sole source of N-fertilizer for microalgae.

Findings: We used a N2-fixing cyanobacterium that produces N-rich biomass that could be efficiently converted into biomass of a variety of microalgae. When using oleaginous strains, on-farm oil-production potential yields by ePBR simulations were up to 20-fold higher than those reported for soy oil. On the other hand, when we used microalgae accumulating carbohydrates (60-70% w/w), after a mild acid treatment for biomass hydrolysis and saccharification, bioethanol was produced at nearly 90% of its theoretical yield by fermentation with yeasts. The system also produced protein-rich biomass fractions as potential feed supplement and allowed some recycling of nutrients.

Conclusion & Significance: We have provided strong proof-of-principle suggesting potential for the economic and environmentally sustainable production of biofuels in multispecies biorefineries. Both on-farm demonstration and detailed modeling of environmental performance are required to take these ideas to a next step.

 

Break:
Panel Discussion and Key networking 12:45-13:00
Lunch Break 13:00-14:00 @ Foyer
Speaker
Biography:

Carole Molina-Jouve is a Professor in the Department of Biochemical Engineering at the Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, an Engineering School in Toulouse, and, since 2016, head of the Laboratoire d’Ingénierie des Systèmes Biologiques et Procédés involving 320 persons. She received her Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse in 1991. She investigated mass transfer in multi-phase systems with chemical and biological reactions and since 1999, her works focus on the investigation of the intensification of the bioprocess performances dedicated to the biofuel production. Since2005, she is involved in 21 projects in bioenergy supported by national agencies, industrial partners and European Union. She is member in Energy from Biomass Group in the Alliance Nationale de Coordination de la Recherche pour l’Energie (French National Alliance for Energy Research Coordination). She then contributes to pinpoint scientific and technological barriers and identify R&D programs.

Abstract:

In recent years, important steps into the transition towards biofuels have been taken in order to reduce environmental impacts linked to fossil fuels and to increase energetic independence. Worldwide bioenergy boom – from sciences, technologies, resources, policies – is an important part of the success and sustainability of the bioeconomy. An updated overview of advanced biofuel's production (alcohol, lipids and hydrogen mainly) from real lignocellulosic resources using yeasts or bacteria is proposed. Only few studies have focused on the advanced biofuel production from real lignocellulosic substrates when complex and synergistic effects of inhibitory compounds occur. Lignocellulose pretreatments to produce liquid or gaseous carbon sources for microbial biofuel production are reported and their scientific and technological bottlenecks i.e. initial low carbon content, generation of inhibitors, limitations to gas-liquid transfers, low yields of products from the initial carbon are underlined. The most recent advances on new engineered strains and innovative integrated bioprocesses for alcohol, lipids as biofuel precursor and hydrogen production are discussed. Prospects focus on the development of genetically modified strains, heat valorizations, recycle of by-products and innovative bioprocesses can contribute to the economic and environmental viability of the lignocellulosic pathway for the production of biofuels. On overview of French academic partners involved in biofuel's production in accordance with French National Research Agency strategy is reported and the evolution during the ten passed years is discussed.

Speaker
Biography:

Qaun Sophia He has her expertise in the development of biofuels from low value biomass and non-conventional energy crops. Her research interests include biodiesel synthesis and application in non-energy sectors; hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass; and catalyst development and application. She has established the Bioenergy and Bioproducts Lab at the Dalhousie University, Canada. She is a seasoned Chemical Engineer with more than 20 years’ research and industrial experience in China, Germany and Canada.

Abstract:

Development of biofuels is largely driven by the depletion of fossil fuels and increasing concerns over environmental problems caused by extensive use of fossil fuels. Biomass as a renewable source is promising, however current practices use edible crops (vegetable oils for biodiesel and sugarcane/corn for bioethanol), which competes with food and feed supplies. This research addresses the dilemma “Food vs. Fuel” through the utilization of biowastes, including agricultural and forest residues, manure, food processing waste and municipal waste. Hydrothermal liquefaction is a thermochemical process, being able to convert wet biowaste into crude bio-oil. The resulting crude bio-oil, similar to fossil crude, can be further refined to gasoline, diesel and a variety of chemicals. A number of biowastes such as spend coffee ground, K-cup, waste paper, corn stalk and pine bark have been studied in the Bioenergy and Bioproduct Lab at Dalhousie University, Canada. The yields and HHVs of the crude bio-oil are in the range of 20-60 wt.% and in the range of 18-38.9 MJ/Kg respectively. Hydrothermal liquefaction was demonstrated a feasible starting point for biomass conversion in the biorefinery value chain.

Speaker
Biography:

Ivo Fouto, is a seasoned business and technical professional with Engineer, Finance and Administration graduation with biotechnology, chemical and energy background in C-level positions in large multinational companies with international exposure. Founder of Cenerbio, company focused in global Pulp&Paper; Bioenergy and Biorefinery project development (Upstream and Downstream integration), utilizing advanced, sustainable and non-transgenic Energy Crops, associated with modern and large scale Agriculture and Geotechnology management tools and technologies.

Abstract:

Biomass supply (Upstream) is one of the greatest barriers to the economic deployment of current and future Biorefinery and Bioenergy technologies (Downstream). Quality, homogeneity, composition, availability and production/transportation cost are the main quality criteria and concerns in the viability of any Biorefinery and Bioenergy initiatives. Forestry/Agricultural Residual or Municipal/Industrial waste are specific alternatives, but in general doesn´t meet the downstream quality and cost processing requirements. In general this is not the main sustainable and competitive pathway, for large scale and competitive Biorefinery and Bioenergy conversion alternatives. After many years of intensive development, there are recent successful achievements in dedicated Energy Crops, especially those derivate from Polyploid and C4 monocotyledonous perennial grass from the Saccharum genus, for a perfect feedstock fit in Bioenergy, Biorefinery and Pulp & Paper Industry. The achieved target was focus in: High Biomass yield; Quality Fibers (Pulp & Paper Industry); Fermentable Sugars availability (Ethanol and other fermentable process); High Rusticity and Tolerance to Poor Soils; Flexible Implementation & Operation (mechanization); Scalability; Availability all year long; Low Carbon Impact and Low Production/Transportation cost. Successful results from these programs already generated innovative and proven Energy Crops (Biorefinery Energy Cane - BEC) varieties for dedicated utilization in different application such: Power Generation; Pyrolysis; Gasification; Pulp & Paper, Bio-Ethanol, etc. These innovative Energy Crops are similar and apply the existing and proven technologies of Sugarcane production (planting; treating; harvesting; transporting and processing), with additional benefits derivate from the BEC higher rusticity. The utilization of BEC biomass could benefit the majority of existing Bioenergy and Biorefinery processing technologies, bringing them to a real economic and commercial viability. Recent developments on Crude/Petroleum Oil refinery integration, by upgrading or co-processing Pyrolysis oil in an FCC unit, could now be successful implemented using this innovative, flexible and low cost Energy Crop (Energy Cane).

Wennan Zhang

Mid Sweden University, Sweden

Title: Review of algae hydrothermal liquefaction

Time : 15:15-15:40

Speaker
Biography:

Wennan Zhang received PhD at Chalmers University of Technology in Energy Engineering in 1995. He has been working on bioenergy since 1996 at Mid Sweden University as a Senior Lecturer and Assocoate Professor. His main work is to lead a biomass gasification research group which is turned to be BTL(biomass-to-liquid) group. A BTL laboratory at Mid Sweden University has been built up under his leadership. The central unit of the laboratory is a 150kW biomass dual fluidized bed gasifier developed by him and his colleague for synthetic gas production. He had been the coordinator of a 4th EU frame-work project “Process simulation of CFB with combustion/gasification of biomass”, from 1998 to 2001. He has developed and taught two courses, “Biofuels” and “Bio-automotive fuels”, to engineer education students at Mid Sweden University since 1998. He is also guest professor in Chinese Academy of Science.

Abstract:

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae biomass has been shown to be a feasible technique to treat large amount of wet algae biomass for the production of a biocrude suitable to be used as biofuel similar to fossil oil. From HTL process, biocrude or bio-oil is produced at temperature of 250 to 370 °C and pressure of 5 to 25MPa with a residence time of 5 to 60 min. In the process, up to 85% of the oxygen contained in biomass can be removed as CO2 and water. Thus, only about 10% oxygen remains in the HTL biooil which leads to a high heating value of 35MJ/kg (fossil diesel 42MJ/kg) in comparison to pyrolysis oil with oxygen content 38% and heating value 18MJ/kg. A further process of hydrotreatment and hydrocracking can remove the 10% oxygen completely and finally a drop-in fuel, gasoline or diesel, can be produced. Comparing biomass gasification and pyrolysis, HTL uses wet feedstock and avoids high temperature operation and energy consumption for feedstock drying. However, HTL technology development is so far in the stage of lab-scale study. This paper is to review algae-HTL-diesel process and to identify the feasibility of HTL application to algae. The algae properties and different operation conditions such as temperature, pressure, loading rate, catalysts, heating rate etc. may lead to different quality and composition of end products from algae HTL, which will be reviewed in this paper.

Cheng-Hung Chen

Taiwan Research Institute, Taiwan

Title: Evaluating the benefits for the policy instruments of green energy technology

Time : 15:40-16:05

Speaker
Biography:

Cheng-Hung Chen got a Master’s degree in Public Finance in National Cheng-Chi University and a PhD degree in Economics in National Taiwan University with two major fields in public economics and international finance. He is an associate Research fellow at Taiwan Research Institute since 2015 and focus on the resources and environment issues, that include energy economics, water resources policies, GHG reduction policies, GHG reduction actions in transportation sector.

Abstract:

Developing green energy technologies has been the strategy taken around the world against climate changes and GHG reduction task. The international institutes and governments thus plan and design related policies and strategies for facing possible obstacles to help green energy technologies successfully develop. The policy instruments can be roughly categorized into three parts, namely (1) setting the target of renewable energy development, (2) developing regulations such as FiT payment, and (3) fiscal incentives. In order to successfully develop green energy development, the Taiwanese government is therefore committed that the generating capacity of renewable energy should reach 20% of gross electricity generation. Furthermore,it also proposes the policies such as the total quantity control, rational feed-in tariff (FiT) rate, subsidies & incentives for demonstration, renewable energy fund, and so on. This aims to facilitate the renewable energy while reaching the reduction goal. Among these strategies, R&D and FiT mechanism are two quite effective ways. The Taiwanese government thus not only keeps increasing the R&D investment but reviews and revises FiT rate regularly per year. Nevertheless, it might cause a fiscal burden for governments while fostering renewable energy. Hence, a proper distribution of funding between these two strategies (i.e. R&D investment and FiT rate) is significantly important. Thus, this paper will explore that if there is a financial income (i.e. energy tax) while this income will be applied to subsidize the strategies such as FiT rate and investing in R&D, how the extent of the impact on the investment distribution is. This aims to clarify the benefits of various technologies with different policy instruments. Further, it will also evaluate the effectiveness for power sector under each policy scenario. The effectiveness contain the total cost for power sector, the carbon emission, and so on.